Ancient
Historians speculate that prehistoric nomads may have made beer from grain & water before learning to make bread.  Beer became ingrained in the culture of civilizations with no significant viticulture.

Noah's provisions included beer on the Ark.

4300 BC: Babylonian clay tablets detail recipes for beer. Babylonians produced beer in large quantities with around 20 varieties.

Beer was a vital part of civilization and the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Chinese, and Inca cultures.

Beer at this time was so valued that it was sometimes used to pay workers as part of their daily wages.  Early cultures often drank beer through straws to avoid grain hulls left in the beverage.

Egyptians brewed beer commercially for use by royalty served in gold goblets, medical purposes, and as a necessity to be included in burial provisions for the journey to the hereafter.

Different grains were used in different cultures:

  • Africa used millet, maize and cassava.
  • North America used persimmon although agave was used in Mexico.
  • South America used corn although sweet potatoes were used in Brazil.
  • Japan used rice to make sake.
  • China used wheat to make samshu.
  • Other Asian cultures used sorghum.
  • Russians used rye to make quass or kvass.
  • Egyptians used barley and may have cultivated it strictly for brewing as it made poor bread.

1600 BC: Egyptian texts contain 100 medical prescriptions calling for beer.  If an Egyptian gentleman offered a lady a sip of his beer they were betrothed.

Early brewers used herbals like balsam, hay, dandelion, mint, and wormwood seeds, horehound juice, and even crab claws & oyster shells for flavorings.

Romans brewed "cerevisia" (Ceres the goddess of agriculture & vis meaning strength in Latin).

55 BC:  Roman legions introduce beer to Northern Europe.

49 BC: Caesar toasted his troops after crossing the Rubicon, which began the Roman Civil War.

Before the Middle Ages brewing was left to women to make since it was considered a food as well as celebration drink.

23 BC: Chinese brewed beer called "kiu"

Middle Ages
500-1000 AD: In the first half of the Middle Ages, brewing begins to be practiced in Europe, shifting from family tradition to centralized production in monasteries and convents (hospitality for traveling pilgrims).

During Medieval times beer was used for tithing, trading, payment and taxing.

1000 AD: hops begins to be used in the brewing process.

1200 AD: beer making is firmly established as a commercial enterprise in Germany, Austria, and England.

  • German's preferred cold temperature lagers (bottom-fermentation) stored in caves in the Alps.
  • English preferred mild temperature ales (top-fermentation) stored in cellars.

1295: King Wenceslas grants Pilsen Bohemia brewing rights (formerly Czechoslovakia, now Slovakia & Czech Republic).

1420: German brewers develop the lager method of brewing.

1489: Germany's first brewing guild, Brauerei Beck, was established.

1490's: Columbus found Indians making beer from corn and black birch sap.

Renaissance
1516: Bavarian brewing guilds push for the Reinheitsgeobot purity laws make it illegal to use any ingredients but water, barley, and hops in the brewing of beer (they didn't know yeast existed).

1553: Beck's Brewery founded & still brewing today.

Late 1500's: Queen Elizabeth I of England drank strong ale for breakfast.

1587: the first beer brewed in New World at Sir Walter Raleigh's colony in Virginia--but the colonists sent requests to England for better beer.

1602: Dr. Alexander Nowell discovers that ale can be stored longer in cork sealed, glass bottles.

1612: the first commercial brewery opened in New Amsterdam (NYC, Manhattan) after colonists advertised in London newspapers for experienced brewers.

1620: Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock because the beer supplies were running low.

1674: Harvard College has its own brewhouse.

1680: William Penn (founder of Pennsylvania) operated commercial brewery.

1757: Washington wrote his personal recipe "To Make Small Beer."

1786: Molson brewery is founded in what is today Canada.

George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had their own private brewhouses.

Samuel Adams operated commercial brewery.

Soldiers in the revolutionary army received rations of a quart of beer a day.

1789: James Madison proposes that Congress levy a low 8-cent duty per barrel on malt liquors to encourage "the manufacture of beer in every State in the Union."

Beer and bread were the mainstays of the ordinary person's diet for centuries. Yeasts during this time were exactly the same as those used in bread.

Modern History
Before the 1800's most beer was really "Ale."Brewery Employees

1810: Munich establishes Oktoberfest as an official celebration.

1830's: Bavarians Gabriel Sedlmayr of Munich and Anton Dreher of Vienna developed the lager method of beer production.

1842: the first golden lager is produced in Pilsen, Bohemia.

In the mid-19th Century (1850's) German immigrant brewers introduced cold maturation lagers to the US (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, Coors, Stroh, Schlitz, and Pabst roots begin here).

The modern era of brewing in the US began in the late 1800's with commercial refrigeration (1860), automatic bottling, pasteurization (1876), and railroad distribution.

1870's: Adolphus Busch pioneers the use of double-walled railcars, a network of icehouses to make Budweiser the first national brand.

1876: Pasteur unraveled the secrets of yeast in the fermentation process, and he also developed pasteurization to stabilize beers 22 years before the process was applied to milk.

1880: there are approximately 2,300 breweries in the US.

1890s: Pabst is the first US brewer to sell over 1 million barrels in a year.

1909: Teddy Roosevelt brought over 500 gal. of beer on safari in Africa.

1914: commercial competition drives the number of operating breweries down to 1,400.

1933: Prohibition ends for beer (April 7).Only 160 breweries survive Prohibition.

1935: the beer can is introduced (American Can Co. & Kreuger Brewing).

1938: Elise Miller John heads Miller Brewing for 8 years as the first and only woman ever to run a major brewing company.

1965: Fritz Maytag purchases Anchor Brewing Co.

1966: Budweiser is the first brand to sell 10 million barrels in a year.

1976: New Albion is the first in the rebirth of brewpubs and microbreweries in the US opening in California.

1988: Asahi Super Dry (Japan) introduces new beer category (soon to follow is Michelob Dry).

1991: the US produces 20% of the world beer volume (world's largest).

1992:

  • The US beer industry produced & sold 2.62 billion cases of beer.
  • Estimated per capita consumption was 22.7 gallons (ranked 13th worldwide).
  • Beer drinkers consumed 5.89 Billion gallons, enough to fill the Houston Astrodome over 12 times or 330 oil tankers.
  • Five brewers produced 89.4% of domestic product:
    • Anheuser-Busch (A-B), 44.5%
      Miller Brewing, 21.8%
      Coors, 10.4%
      Stroh, 7.4%
      Heileman, 5.3%
  • The world's largest combined-site brewer was A-B, at 1.166 Billion cases.
  • The world's largest single-site brewery was Coors Brewing, Golden, Colorado, at 272 Million cases.

1993: US retail beer sales exceed $45 Billion.

In First half of the 1900's beer was associated with men, blue-collar workers, college students, and mainstream sports enthusiasts. By the late 1900's beer had a different image and cultural function, with growth in popularity among a more diverse share of the population.

 

Prof. Linda Raley, Texas Tech University

 

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